The Russian 220mm TOS-1 Buratino Thermobaric Multiple Rocket Launcher Heavy Flamethrower System is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis.
The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.
TOS-1 is not assigned to the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in Russian NBC Protection Troops
The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric wrockets arose in the late 1970s. The system consisting of the vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.
The large mass of the launcher and the need for a high-level of protection (due to the relatively short range of 3,500 m (11,500 ft)) helped determine the use of the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The TZM reloading vehicle was built on the chassis of a KrAZ-255B cross-country truck and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher.
In 2003, the improved TOS-1A system entered service. The improved system's range has been extended to 6 kilometers and its ballistic computer has been upgraded.
The nickname "Buratino" originates with the name of the hero of a Russian retelling of the Pinocchio tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), given the perception of the big "nose" of the launcher.